Kenya U15 football team set for Spain tourney

first_imgThis as the team held a morning session at the Utalii Grounds.“We have played close to five competitive matches in the past two months. The boys have a competitive mindset and I am confident that we will give a good account of ourselves in Spain,” said coach David Ouma.“Playing against top European sides will be a memorable experience for the boys,” he added.Kenya has been drafted into pool D of the 16-team tournament, which will be played in a group and knockout format.The group also comprises of Spanish sides NT Terres, Junior CF, and Eastern FC.0Shares0000(Visited 5 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000Action in the Kenya U15 team’s training session at the Utalii Grounds on Thursday April 11, 2019 ahead of the upcoming MIC Football Tournament. Photo/FKFNAIROBI, Kenya, Apr 11 – The Kenya Under-15 football team is set to travel to Spain ahead of the upcoming Mediterranean International Cup Under-16 tournament.The team, which is put up on a homeschooling program at Football Kenya Federation’s Center of Excellence, has been holding daily training sessions for the better part of the year, and coach David Ouma feels they are ready for the challenge.last_img read more

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Mutation Rate Catastrophe: You Can’t Even Break Even

first_imgIn a tortoise-and-hare kind of story, a team of geneticists figured out what happens when positive natural selection tries to outrun mutations: “mutation rate catastrophe.”  Publishing in PNAS,1 they described how beneficial mutations might become established in a population rapidly (that’s the hare).  Eventually (this is the tortoise), harmful mutations accumulate to the tipping point, and the population goes extinct.    The abstract begins with one of only two praises of natural selection (both qualified with reality checks):The intricate adjustment of organisms to their environment demonstrates the effectiveness of natural selection.  But Darwin himself recognized that certain biological features could limit this effectiveness, features that generally reduce the efficiency of natural selection or yield suboptimal adaptation.  Genetic linkage is known to be one such feature, and here we show theoretically that it can introduce a more sinister flaw: when there is complete linkage between loci affecting fitness and loci affecting mutation rate, positive natural selection and recurrent mutation can drive mutation rates in an adapting population to intolerable levels.The only other praise of natural selection was more of an insult.  Calling it robust does not help it jump the high hurdles their model revealed.  In a section called “How Genetic Linkage Can Subvert Natural Selection,” they spoke of it as a myopic fallen hero:Our theoretical findings indicate that mutator hitchhiking can set in motion a self-reinforcing loss of replication fidelity, but the question of how a process as robust as natural selection could allow this to happen remains.  The key fact is that natural selection, although eminently robust, is a short-sighted process that favors traits with immediate fitness benefits.  The fitness cost of mutator hitchhiking is generally not anticipated because of the slow accumulation of deleterious load.  When a mutator hitchhikes with a new beneficial mutation, a simple model shows that the increased deleterious load due to the mutator is in fact suppressed during the spread of the beneficial mutation.  Indeed, the full fitness cost of the mutator is only realized well after the beneficial mutation has stopped spreading…. A mutator may therefore enjoy the immediate benefit of producing a new beneficial mutation without anticipating the eventual increase in deleterious load.  Because of this delay in the accumulation of deleterious load, natural selection can drive mutation rate up to the point of no return….Indeed, their graphs all show that the temporary, wobbly rises of evolutionary progress under the best of conditions all come crashing down suddenly in the end.    This particular study involved asexual, one-celled organisms.  It was not purely theoretical, though.  They stated that it is known that bad mutations “hitchhike” on the same genes with rare beneficial mutations.  Fatal mutations, of course, kill the organism right off, but some bad mutations delay their harm, adding to the mutational load over time.  Eventually, they catch up and, like the tortoise, win the race after the hare is pooped out.    Why don’t the beneficial mutations ever win?  After all, they can spread rapidly in a population.  The reason is that fitness is short-sighted.  Natural selection cannot see down the road or have a goal.  It can only act on the immediate consequences of a change.  Harmful mutations, by contrast, are not necessarily weeded out immediately.  Consider, for instance, a slightly damaged proofreading enzyme.  It may not kill the organism right off the bat.  Give it time, though, and the damage will add up – right after the beneficial mutation has reached equilibrium in the population.  Their model shows that the mutation rate actually accelerates over time.  Surprisingly, it is the very process of adaptation for fitness that accelerates the mutation rate – not just in bacteria, but in higher organisms, too:There is almost certainly no physiological barrier to such an effect in most organisms: the genomic mutation rate in organisms from viruses to eukaryotes is a quantitative trait affected by many mutations whose effects can readily cumulate to intolerable levels of error.  In what follows, we show that there need not be a selective barrier to this process either: because the full fitness effect of increased deleterious mutation takes some time to accumulate after a higher mutation rate has evolved, it is theoretically possible for a population to evolve a critically high mutation rate and subsequently go extinct.The team tweaked the parameters of their mathematical model in various ways to try to get natural selection to make some headway.  They used infinite populations and small populations.  They used large and small genome sizes.  All efforts yielded the same result: negative mutations eventually swamped any gains from positive natural selection.  In cases of sustained “arms races,” like bacterial invaders vs. the immune system in mammals, the antagonists may struggle back and forth till both fall off the cliff.2  Surprisingly, the beneficial mutation itself may trigger the catastrophe.  Under equilibrium conditions, mutations tend to accumulate slowly, especially if some error correction mechanism is present.  A new beneficial mutation changes the rules.  Now, the population is adapting to a new situation, and the model shows that mutation rate rises to the occasion.    In short, the population has no way to break even.  In a section called “Evolutionary Implications,” they wrote, “Our results suggest the possibility of a novel complement to existing explanations for why truly asexual populations are evolutionarily short-lived.”  Pick your poison: “Either an asexual population does not adapt and goes extinct as a result of the slow accumulation of deleterious mutations, as suggested by existing theory, or else it adapts and goes extinct as a result of the mutation-rate catastrophe.”    How, then, could these authors, being evolutionists, keep faith in neo-Darwinian theory, which relies on mutation and natural selection?  Since their study concerned only asexual organisms, they assumed that early one-celled organisms quickly learned about this problem and adapted ways to get around it.  Maybe they invented proofreading.  Maybe they tried recombination.  Eventually, the idea goes, sexual reproduction arrived and helped mask the effects of “mutation rate catastrophe.”  But they freely admit this is all just speculation:It is tempting to speculate that the mutation rate catastrophe phenomenon that we have observed here played a role in the early establishment of recombination in the most primitive life forms (41).  It seems probable that adaptation was continual in primordial populations and that only rudimentary mechanisms of genomic proofreading and repair had evolved, such that mutation rates were closer to intolerable values than they are in most present forms.  Under these circumstances, the mutation-rate catastrophe could have posed an imminent threat to any purely asexual population.Nevertheless, they did not offer any detailed models of how the catastrophe could be avoided.  Other studies have denied that sexual reproduction offers any resistance to mutational load (10/12/2000, 05/16/2004).  The origin of sex has been called the “queen of evolutionary problems” (04/14/2003).  With 20 competing theories about what it’s good for, it would seem a hard sell that claim sex came to the rescue to prevent error catastrophe.    These problems are not new.  Other evolutionists have written about “mutational meltdown” (12/14/2006).  Hermann Joseph Muller in 1932 described “Muller’s Ratchet,” a principle that shows mutations in asexual populations accumulate in an irreversible manner.  “Our findings depart from previous work, however,” they said, “by showing that such high mutation rates can be the catastrophic result of unfettered natural selection.”    Neo-Darwinian theory may suffer from this model, but there is one bright side for biomedical research.  Maybe pharmacists can take advantage of this finding and help pathogens to mutate themselves to death: “Our results suggest the interesting and related possibility that the adaptive immune response itself could drive a purely clonal pathogen to mutation rate catastrophe and extinction within the host.”  Locked in an arms race, the pathogen and the immune system can drive the germs over the cliff like a big buffalo jump.  “This mechanism could, in theory, help to explain the spontaneous clearance of some viral infections and suggests that recombination, which prevents runaway increases in mutation rate, may be essential to the persistence of other viral infections that are not cleared.”  Now you know why your cold or flu eventually clears up on its own.    One final question: does recombination really prevent mutational catastrophe?  They did not discuss this “suggestion” in any detail.  They only assumed that it would.  Other studies reported here indicate that recombination, while it may stabilize the genome and aid genetic repair (07/18/2001, 07/31/2002), cannot add new genetic information (08/20/2003) and, at best, only delays the inevitable (10/19/2004, 12/14/2006)  Some recombinations, in fact, can be toxic (10/27/2005, bullet 3).  It would seem that adding another random influence in the mix would not overcome the “genetic entropy” of cumulative mutations.1Philip J. Gerrish, Alexandre Colato, Alan S. Perelson, and Paul D. Sniegowski, “Evolution: Complete genetic linkage can subvert natural selection,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0607280104, published online before print April 3, 2007.2See the “Red Queen Effect” – i.e., running and getting nowhere, 09/07/2006.  The authors modeled the Red Queen Effect in the context of pathogen-immune arms races.  Their graph shows an upward adaptational fight ending in sudden collapse.OK, how many times do we have to show that neo-Darwinism has been falsified for its disciples to throw in the towel?  (For a partial list, see 10/19/2004, 11/29/2004, and 12/14/2006).  Jason Wolf told us four years ago how indirect genetic effects produce “slippage on the treadmill” that hinders evolutionary progress (see 03/17/2003).  Now, this paper practically waxes the treadmill to a shiny, frictionless surface, complete with banana peel.  Think of it: neo-Darwinists have pinned their hopes on the rare, mythical “beneficial mutations” to generate novelty, and for natural selection to save every blessed tidbit in its sieve, leading to the wondrous variety of adapted life (wave the magic wand of millions of years here).  But now, their own mechanisms have turned on them.  Beneficial mutations (if there are such things) actually trigger a mutational arms race.  This subverts natural selection, begins a mutational meltdown, and sends the population off the cliff to extinction.  Charlie will never get endless forms most beautiful at this rate.    He who has ears to hear, let him hear (04/06/2007).  If you have placed your eternal hopes on Charlie’s natural selection tale to win the cosmic lottery without responsibility to your Maker, then have faith.  You’re going to need a lot of it.(Visited 64 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

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Spa Bath Shower Make Up Wash Face Cosmetic Headband Hair Band Pink, A tad short but just ok

first_imgWill do the task it was supposed to do.I like it it fits good the only thing was the time it took to occur.Fantastic quialty get there on time great valuenice thick velcro sticker on the band.Key specs for Spa Bath Shower Make Up Wash Face Cosmetic Headband Hair Band Pink:Product Name : Spa Headband;Main Material : Cotton BlendsColor : Pink;Flat Size : 52 x 8cm/ 20.5″ x 3.1″(Girth*W)Fir for Head Girth : 45-48cm/ 17.7″-18.9”Net Weight : 33gPackage Content : 1 x Spa HeadbandComments from buyers“It was really good and helped me a lot, Great product :), A tad short but just ok, Bargain of the century, great quality. Thank you, Good quality for the price”It was genuinely very good and aided me a lot. I purchased only 1 at 1st. It took far more than three months to appear, alright i knew that. It was actually superior and helped me a whole lot. Then i purchased three much more and they were being not the similar with the 1st a single, it was not the exact same excellent, that’s why i have set four stars. But they are okay for the cost.Attractive pastel cosmetic band – velcro extremely safe, wonderful high-quality.Took a long time to arrive but does what it really is meant to and is relaxed to wear.Love this merchandise but it is just a bit massive on my head.Ok the packing was not very excellent so it got marked in the article.It really is really delicate and essay to wore on.Failed to acquire that long to get there when purchased also retains my hair out of the way when washing my face or implementing my make-up good fit on head also.I can’t quite fully grasp how this kind of a good item can price so little. This is a pretty neat tiny headband. My second one particular – cannot have also lots of.Gained this merchandise for my attractiveness aspect occupation functions perfect for facials or any facial treatments. Very straightforward to wash and will come up brand new. Came with in three months of purchasing which was only down slide.Pleasantly surprised with the high-quality of the product or service.Does what is states on the tin.A bit short but does the job. Would be excellent if current in white and with a couple centimetres excess. My head measures 56-57cm which is an regular measurement and it is somewhat limited.Relatively smaller – as other reviewers have explained, if it experienced been an inch bigger it would have been wonderful.last_img read more

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More Awesome iOS Games to Come As Epic Games Releases Unreal Development Kit

first_imgA Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Related Posts The technology behind some of the most popular video games, including Gears of War 3 and Infinity Blade, is now available to iPhone and iPad game developers, as Epic Games has released an updated version of its Unreal Development Kit (UDK).The kit, which is free to download, provides developers the framework to create 3D simulations, high-quality graphics, and advanced animations on iOS. There is no cost for licensing the UDK for educational or non-commercial usage. If you do want to sell the apps you make with the kit, there’s a $99 licensing fee and you’ll have to pay 25% in royalties after your first $5000 in sales.That could end up being quite a bit of money if you build a successful game, true, but making the kit free available will likely spur not just the development process for a gaming company, but also help expand the number of high-end video games that are starting to appear on Apple’s mobile devices.Paving the Way for More High-End Games on Mobile DevicesEpic Games’ Infinity Blade hit the App Store last week and was quickly crowned the fastest grossing app ever. And while some game makers and players have long scoffed at the thought of high-quality games ever being available – or more importantly playable – on mobile devices, Infinity Blade demonstrates that, indeed, you can unleash some furious video-game ass-kicking via your iPhone.As a Wall Street Journal article on today’s release notes, Apple has added a number of technologies over the last few years to the iPhone, iPad and iPod touch that have made this sort of gaming experience possible. And it’s also featured mobile gaming as part of its marketing campaign, with Epic Citadel – also built with the Unreal Engine technology – featured at Apple’s iOS 4.1 announcement in September.So what about Android? Game developers have a number of concerns with the Android platform, as “the wide variety of Android phones available on the market makes writing applications that can work across the board challenging, and Google’s Android Marketplace doesn’t allow for applications above a certain file size, a definite problem for both Infinity Blade.” But accordin to Epic Games co-founder Mark Rein says he expects Google will address that in the future, particularly as mobile game development grows. audrey watterscenter_img Tags:#Apple#web Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Marketlast_img read more

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Family of Quebec man imprisoned in Oman seeks Ottawas help to bring

first_imgMONTREAL — The family of a Quebec man imprisoned in Oman is asking the Canadian government to help repatriate him before he is extradited to the United Arab Emirates on fraud charges.According to his son, Andre Gauthier was imprisoned in Dubai between 2015 and 2017, and has been jailed in Oman since March, when authorities stopped him from returning to Canada during an appeal of an eight-year sentence.The 65-year-old’s son and lawyers describe him as a whistleblower who alerted authorities to irregular dealings in a gold-trading company he was involved with. They say he was blamed for the $30-million fraud after the real perpetrators left the country.They want the Canadian government to step in to stop Gauthier from being returned to Dubai, where they say he faces potential human rights violations and has little chance of a fair trial.Global Affairs Canada says consular officials are aware of the case and members of the government have met with Omani officials to discuss it.But Gauthier’s son, Alexis Gauthier, is calling on Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to get personally involved in pressuring authorities to bring his father home.The Canadian Presslast_img read more

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